Thursday, January 30, 2020

Literature and imagination Essay Example for Free

Literature and imagination Essay In Critical Approaches to Literature, David Daiches has said that the imagination, in its primary manifestation, is the great ordering principle, an agency which enables us both to discriminate and to order, to separate and to synthesize, and thus makes perception possible, for without it, we would have only a collection of meaningless sensory data. Literary theory and poetry materialize concurrently, for poets have a strong tendency to form opinions about their craft and to use these opinions as part of the message of their poems. Imagination is undoubtedly inherent in literature, the prime component in any work of art, but this view has been a cause of debate since the dawn of literature and criticism. As with most dissentions and philosophy regarding literature and its attendant features, the first records of this debate are to be found in the germinal works of Aristotle and Plato. Writing at a time when the poet was venerated for his work, and the philosopher persecuted for his, it is but natural that Plato would react negatively towards poetry. He regarded it as being fundamentally unsound and his view of imagination was much the same, since the imagination is the wellspring from which poetry arises. Imagination was inspirational and emotional, and he did not agree or identify with it for he did not find it logical. Aristotle, on the other hand, acknowledged that art represented reality, and that imagination was an important element of the structuring and creating of art. Horace, while admitting that poets utilized fiction and often mingled facts with fancy, put forth a synthesis of Aristotle and Platos views. According to him, the end function of poetry is to please and instruct, a mixture of pleasure and profit appeals to every reader and hence, imagination took on a fairly central position. John Dryden, a Seventeenth Century liberal and neo- classical critic, acknowledged imagination as inspiration breathd into man by God. Increasingly we observe that, as it is investigated down the ages, the primary human faculty of imagination becomes inseparable from poetry- Dryden acknowledged both the didactic and aesthetic nature of poetry. The term Fancy, so commonly used, was coined by him. Pope, in accordance to the vigorous structural formalism of the Augustans, declares that imagination was native, but that it should be kept under control, for there was a necessity for decorum. In the Nineteenth Century, the issue of imagination became one of utmost significance, mostly due to the theorizing of Wordsworth, and more significantly, of Coleridge. While imagination, as a primary and unique faculty of the human psyche and consciousness, was never debated, both poets managed to convey its indisputable significance in poetry. In the Seventeenth Century, the writer became of soul importance- the readers reacted to the experience of emotion with delight. This delight, the Romantics stressed, was the prime objective of their poetry, but was not achieved by mechanical application of rules, but by the strength of the imagination. An early and somewhat haphazard attempt on the part of Wordsworth to discriminate between imagination (Impressive effects out of simple elements), and fancy (Pleasure and surprise excited by sudden varieties of situation and accumulated imagery), appears in The Thorn. In earlier discussions, both of these had been in most part used synonymously to denote a faculty of the mind which is distinguished from reason and judgement, and which receives images from the senses and records them into new combinations. He stresses that imagination, and not fancy, should be used to refer to the creative or poetic principle. The distinction between imagination and fancy was a key element in Coleridges theory of poetry, as well as in the general theory of the mental processes. This laconic differentiation is the core of his exposition on the nature and genesis of the imagination. M. H. Abrams, in The Mirror and the Lamp, points out that, As in his philosophy, so in his criticism, Coleridge roots his theory in the constitution and activity of the creative mind. The memory, for Coleridge, is mechanical, and fancy passive, which acts only by a sort of juxtaposition. The imagination, on the other hand, recreates, its elements by a process to which Coleridge sometimes applies terms borrowed from the physical and chemical unions- it is a synthetic, a permeative and a blending, fusing power. The imagination is essentially vital; it generates and produces a form of its own. Fancy is thus a perfunctory process which receives the elementary images- the fixities and definites which it receives from the senses, and without altering the parts, reassembles them into a different spatial and temporal order form that in which they were originally perceived. The imagination creates rather than reassembles by dissolving the fixities and definites, and unifying them into a new whole. The faculty of imagination generates and produces a form of its own while its rules are the very powers of growth and production. It assimilates and synthesises the most disparate elements into an organic whole- a newly generated unity, constituted by a living interdependence of parts whose identity cannot survive their removal from the whole. Fancy can be taken to mean surface decorations of new combinations of memories and perceptions, while imagination involved a combination of elements in the cauldron of the poets mind, with imagination acting as a base of sorts more than anything else, which results in the creation of a new work. Coleridge further distinguishes between the Primary and Secondary imagination. If the process of creation is conceived as being essentially and perpetually the bringing of order out of chaos, then the Primary imagination is essentially creative and a repetition in the finite mind of the eternal act of creation in the finite I AM. This could be explained by reducing imagination to a single image, or a train of thought, in ones mind- this quality, being inherent in every conscious, human being (that is, in evolutionary terms, the ability of foresight and being able to think around a situation), and Coleridge has recognized this as constituting the Primary imagination. The Secondary imagination is the conscious human use of this power. When we employ our Primary imagination in the act of perception, we are not doing so with our conscious will, but are exercising the basic faculty of our awareness of ourselves and the external world; the Secondary imagination is more conscious and less elemental, but it does not differ in kind from the primary. In imagination, elements in an environment that strike the creators sensibility are blended and fused into a new whole- the poet has to merge reason and emotion, restraint and spontaneity, the abstract and the concrete, etc. The entire exercise is a reconciliation of opposites, (precisely why it is a conscious one), emphasizing the dialectical character of creativity. The action can be reduced to three basic phases: thesis, antithesis and synthesis, but this process is inexplicable, as is imagination, and particular to the poet himself. The resultant exposition can never be stripped down to its original elements. To exemplify this, Coleridge uses the analogy of the transformation of a seed into a plant to explain this theory. Once the seed has been planted, and grows into a plant, it is impossible to reduce the plant to singular elements like the seed, the water, the air, the soil, etc. It is a whole- an organic unit. In the same manner- a creation of the imagination has an inherent organic unity- it cannot be reduced to any of its contributory elements. This is the dialectical character of creativity that involves synthesis- the result of this blend and fusion is a whole. Coleridge stressed that imagination makes new perception possible. If indeed a work springs out of imagination, it holds the ability to penetrate the experience of its genesis and reveal the essence of the object. This echoes Aristotles view that poetry or art penetrates through the idea of an object and brings to the surface not the particular, but the universal in the particular, the essence. In a writers imagination, thus, the experience is unifying or coadunative- what Coleridge calls Esemplastic- it is moulded into an expression by the imagination. Literature thus becomes a piece of actuality subjected to the laws of imagination. Most critics after Coleridge tended to make fancy simply that faculty that produces a lesser, lighter, or more humorous kind of poetry, and to make imagination the faculty that produces a higher, more serious, and more passionate poetry. However, the mark of Coleridges theories is undoubtedly present in each of these. As he himself has stated: I laboured at a solid foundation, in the component faculties of the human mind itself and their comparative dignity and importance.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Free Essays - Depression in The Catcher in the Rye :: Catcher Rye Essays

Depression in The Catcher in the Rye The Catcher in the Rye by, J.D. Salinger is told through Holden the narrative in the story. The setting of the novel takes place in the 1940's early 1950's. Holden is sixteen years old and he has a lot of problems in his life. He becomes seriously depressed to the point he cannot deal with people and life around him. The 1940's were different from today. However, Holden Caulfield is similar to many other teenagers who go through the same problems. The 1940's were a time of nationalism. Men had to have an appearance of a tough attitude. They were never allowed to let their real feelings show. One of the major reasons Holden becomes depressed is the death of his brother Allie. He described is brother as being nothing but perfect. He keeps this guilt locked up inside him because he blames his death on himself. A memory that haunts him is when he excluded his brother from a b-b gun game. Another memory that he held on to and was never able to forgive himself for was when Allie asked Holden to go bike riding and he didn't go. Holden did not have a good relationship with his Mother or Father. He needed them the most right after the death of Allie. However, we see Holden crying out help and attention when he threw a baseball through the window and broke it and still nobody talked to him. His older brother went off to Hollywood. The only one he adores is his younger sister Phoebe. He is able to talk to her a nd he thought she understood him. He could not deal with reality. He quoted "I am the most terrific liar you ever saw in your life." He couldn't face people not even himself. He drank to make himself feel better but it just made him angrier. Many adolecesents go through the same problems as Holden does. They have no one to turn to. So they dig deeper into this hole and can't face life. However, no matter what, losing a loved one is probably the most painful loss a person can face.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Structural-Functionalism and Conflict Theory

Theories in sociology provide us with different perspectives with which to view our social world. A perspective is simply a way of looking at the world. A theory is a set of interrelated propositions or principles designed to answer a question or explain a particular phenomenon; it provides us with a perspective. Sociological theories help us to explain and predict the social world in which we live. Sociology includes three major theoretical perspectives: the structural-functionalist perspective, the conflict perspective, and the symbolic interactionist perspective. Each perspective offers a variety of explanations about the causes of and possible solutions for social problems (Rubington & Weinberg, 1995). Structural-Functionalist Perspective The structural-functionalist perspective is largely based on the works of Herbert Spencer, Emile Durkheim, Talcott Parsons, and Robert Merton. According to structural-functionalist, society is a system of interconnected parts that work together in harmony to maintain a state of balance and social equilibrium for the whole. For example, each of the social institutions contributes important functions for society: family provides a context for reproducing, nurturing, and socializing children; education offers a way to transmit society's skills, knowledge, and culture to its youth; politics provides a means of governing members of society; economics provides for the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services; and religion provides moral guidance and an outlet for worship of a higher power. The structural-functionalist perspective emphasizes the interconnectedness of society by focusing on how each part influences and is influenced by other parts. For example, the increase in single-parent and dual-earner families has contributed to the number of children who are failing in school because parents have become less available to supervise their children's homework. Due to changes in technology, colleges are offering more technical programs, and many adults are returning to school to learn new skills that are required in the workplace. The increasing number of women in the workforce has contributed to the formation of policies against sexual harassment and job discrimination. Consideration In viewing society as a set of interrelated parts, structural-functionalists also note that proposed solutions to a social problem may cause additional social problems. For example, racial imbalance in public schools led to forced integration, which in turn generated violence and increased hostility between the races. The use of plea bargaining was adopted as a means of dealing with overcrowded court dockets but resulted in â€Å"the revolving door of justice. Urban renewal projects often displaced residents and broke up community cohesion. Structural-functionalist use the terms â€Å"functional† and â€Å"dysfunctional† to describe the effects of social elements on society. Elements of society are functional if they contribute to social stability and dysfunctional if they disrupt social stability. Some aspects of society may be both functional and dysfunctional for society. For example, crime is dysfunctional in that it is associated with physical violence, loss of property, and fear. But, according to Durkheim and other functionalists, crime is also functional for society because it leads to heightened awareness of shared moral bonds and increased social cohesion. Sociologists have identified two types of functions: manifest and latent (Merton, 1968). Manifest functions are consequences that are intended and commonly recognized. Latent functions are consequences that are unintended and often hidden. For example, the manifest function of education is to transmit knowledge and skills to society's youth. ut public elementary schools also serve as baby-sitters for employed parents, and college offer a place for young adults to meet potential mates. The baby-sitting and mate selection functions are not the intended or commonly recognized functions of education–hence, they are latent functions. Structural-Functionalist Theories of Social Problems Two dominant theories of social problems grew out of the structural-functionalist perspective: social pathology and s ocial disorganization. Social Pathology According to the social pathology model, social problems result from some â€Å"sickness† in society. Just as the human body becomes ill when our systems, organs, and cells do not function normally, society becomes â€Å"ill† when its parts (i. e. , elements of the structure and culture) no longer perform properly. For example, problems such as crime, violence, poverty, and juvenile delinquency are often attributed to the breakdown of the family institution, the decline of the religious institution, and inadequacies in our economic, educational, and political institutions. Social â€Å"illness† also results when members of a society are not adequately socialized to adopt its norms and values. Persons who do not value honesty, for example, are prone to dishonesties of all sorts. Early theorists attributed the failure in socialization to â€Å"sick† people who could not be socialized. Later theorists recognized that failure in the socialization process stemmed from â€Å"sick† social conditions, not â€Å"sick† people. To prevent or solve social problems, members of society must receive proper socialization and moral education, which may be accomplished in the family, schools, churches, workplace, and/or through the media. Social Disorganization According to the social disorganization view of social problems, rapid social change disrupts the norms in a society. When norms become weak or are in conflict with each other, society is in a state of anomie or normlessness. Hence, people may steal, physically abuse their spouse or children, abuse drugs, rape or engage in other deviant behavior because the norms regarding their behaviors are weak or conflicting. According to this view, the solution to social problem lies in slowing the pace of social change and strengthening social norms. For example, although the use of alcohol by teenagers is considered a violation of a social norm in our society, this norm is weak. The media portray young people drinking alcohol, teenagers teach each other to drink alcohol and buy fake identification cards (IDs) to purchase alcohol, and parents model drinking behavior by having a few drinks after work or at a social event. Solutions to teenage drinking may involve strengthening norms against it through public education, restricting media depictions of youth and alcohol, imposing stronger sanctions against the use of fake IDs to purchase alcohol, and educating parents to model moderate and responsible drinking behavior. Conflict Perspective Whereas the structural-functionalist perspective views society as comprising different parts working together, the conflict perspective views society as comprising different groups and interests competing for power and resources. The conflict perspective explains various aspects of our social world by looking at which groups have power and benefit from a particular social arrangement. The origins of the conflict perspective can be traced to the classic works of Karl Marx. Marx suggested that all societies go through stages of economic development. As societies evolve from agricultural to industrial, concern over meeting survival needs is replaced by concern over making profit, the hallmark of a capitalist system. Industrialization leads to the development of two classes of people: the bourgeoisie, or the owners of the means of production (e. g. , factories, farms, businesses), and the proletariat, or the worker who earn wages. The division of society into two broad classes of people–the â€Å"haves† and the â€Å"have-nots†Ã¢â‚¬â€œis beneficial to the owners of the means of production. The workers, who may earn only subsistence wages, are denied access to the many resources available to the wealthy owners. According to Marx, the bourgeoisie use their power to control the institutions of society to their advantage. For example, Marx suggested that religion serves as an â€Å"opiate of the masses† in that it soothes the distress and suffering associated with the working-class lifestyle and focuses workers' attention on spirituality, God, and the afterlife rather than on such worldly concerns as living conditions. In essence, religion diverts the workers so that they concentrate on being rewarded in heaven for living a moral life rather than on questioning exploitation. Conflict Theories of Social Problems There are two general types of conflict theories of social problems: Marxist and non-Marxist. Marxist theories focus on social conflict that results from economic inequalities; non-Marxist theories focus on social conflict that results form competing values and interests among social groups. [Note: Non-Marxist theories are also referred to as neo-Marxist theories–â€Å"non† and â€Å"neo† are interchangeable. ] Marxist Conflict Theories According to contemporary Marxist theorists, social problems result from class inequality inherent in a capitalistic system. A system of â€Å"haves† and â€Å"have-nots† may be beneficial to the â€Å"haves† but often translate into poverty for the â€Å"have-nots. Many social problems, including physical and mental illness, low educational achievement, and crime are linked to poverty. In addition to creating an impoverished class of people, capitalism also encourages â€Å"corporate violence. † Corporate violence may be defined as actual harm and/or risk of harm inflicted on consumers, worker s, and the general public as a result of decisions by corporate executives or manages. Corporate violence may also result from corporate negligence, the quest for profits at any cost, and willful violation of health, safety, and environmental laws (Hills, 1987). Our profit-motivated economy encourages individuals who are otherwise good, kind, and law-abiding to knowingly participate in the manufacturing and marketing of defective brakes on American jets, fuel tanks on automobiles, and contraceptive devices (intrauterine devices [IUDs]). The profit motive has also caused individuals to sell defective medical devices, toxic pesticides, and contaminated foods to developing countries. Blumberg (1989) suggests that â€Å"in an economic system based exclusively on motives of self-interests and profit, such behavior is inevitable† (p. 06). Marxist conflict theories also focus on the problem of alienation, or powerlessness and meaninglessness in people's lives. In industrialized societies, workers often have little power or control over their jobs, which fosters a sense of powerlessness in their lives. The specialized nature of work requires workers to perform limited and repetitive tasks; as a result, the workers may come to feels that their lives are meaningless. Alienation is bred not only in the workplace, but also in the classroom. Students have little power over their education and often find the curriculum is not meaningful to their lives. Like poverty, alienation is linked to other social problems, such as low educational achievement, violence, and suicide. Marxist explanations of social problems imply that the solution lies in eliminating inequality among classes of people by creating a classless society. The nature of work must also change to avoid alienation. Finally, stronger controls must be applied to corporations to ensure that corporate decisions and practices are based on safety rather than profit considerations. Non-Marxist Conflict Theories Non-Marxist conflict theorists such as Ralf Dahrendorf are concerned with conflict that arise when groups have opposing values and interests. For example, antiabortion activists value the life of unborn embryos and fetuses; prochoice activists value the right of women to control their own body and reproductive decisions. These different value positions reflect different subjective interpretations of what constitutes a social problem. For antiabortionists, the availability of abortion is the social problem; for prochoice advocates, restrictions on abortion are the social problem. Sometimes the social problem is not the conflict itself, but rather the way that conflict is expressed. Even most prolife advocates agree that shooting doctors who perform abortions and blowing up abortion clinics constitute unnecessary violence and lack of respect for life. Value conflicts may occur between diverse categories of people, including nonwhites versus whites, heterosexuals versus homosexuals, young versus old, Democrats versus Republicans, and environmentalists versus industrialists. Solutions to the problems that are generated by competing values may involve ensuring that conflicting groups understand each other's views, resolving differences through negotiation or mediation, or agreeing to disagree. Ideally, solutions should be win-win; both conflicting groups are satisfied with the solution. However, outcomes of value conflicts are often influenced by power; the group with the most power may use its position to influence the outcome of value conflicts. For example, when Congress could not get all states to voluntarily increase the legal drinking age to 21, it threatened to withdraw federal highway funds from those that would not comply. Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Both the structural-functionalist and the conflict perspectives are concerned with how broad aspects of society, such as institutions and large groups, influence the social world. This level of sociological analysis is called macro sociology: It looks at the â€Å"big picture† of society and suggests how social problems are affected at the institutional level. Micro sociology, another level of sociological analysis, is concerned with the social psychological dynamics of individuals interacting in small groups. Symbolic interactionism reflects the micro sociological perspective and was largely influenced by the work of early sociologists and philosophers such as Max Weber, Georg Simmel, Charles Horton Cooley, George Herbert Mead, William Isaac Thomas, Erving Goffman, and Howard Becker. Symbolic interactionism emphasizes that human behavior is influenced by definitions and meanings that are created and maintained through symbolic interactions with others. Sociologist William Isaac Thomas ([1931] 1966) emphasized the importance of definitions and meanings in social behavior and its consequences. He suggested that humans respond to their definition of a situation rather than to the objective situation itself. Hence, Thomas noted that situations we define as real become real in their consequences. Symbolic interactionism also suggests that our identity or sense or self is shaped by social interaction. we develop our self-concept by observing how others interact with us and label us. By observing how others view us, we see a reflection of ourselves that Cooley calls the â€Å"looking glass self. Lastly, the symbolic interaction perspective has important implications for how social scientist conduct research. The German sociologist Max Weber (1864-1920) argued that in order to understand the individual and group behavior, social scientists must see the world from the eyes of that individual or group. Weber called this approach Verstehen, which in German means â€Å"empathy. † Verstehen implies that in conducting research, social scientists must try to understand others' view of reality and the subjective aspects of their experiences, including their symbols, values, attitudes, and beliefs. Symbolic Interactionist Theories of Social Problems A basic premise of symbolic interactionist theories of social problems is that a condition must be defined or recognized as a social problem in order for it to be a social problem. Based on this premise, Herbert Blumer (1971) suggested that social problems develop in stages. First, social problems pass through the stage of â€Å"societal recognition†Ã¢â‚¬â€œthe process by which a social problem, for example, drunk driving, is â€Å"born. † Second, â€Å"social legitimation† takes place when the social problem achieves recognition by the larger community, including the media, schools, and churches. As the visibility of traffic fatalities associated with alcohol increased, so the the legitimation of drunk driving as a social problem. The next stage in the development of a social problem involves â€Å"mobilization for action,† which occurs when individuals and groups, such as Mothers Against Drunk Driving, become concerned about how to respond to the social condition. This mobilization leads to the â€Å"development and implementation of an official plan† for dealing with the problem, involving, for example, highway checkpoints, lower legal blood-alcohol levels, and tougher drunk driving regulations. Blumer's stage development view of social problems is helpful in tracing the development of social problems. For example, although sexual harassment and date rape have occurred throughout this century, these issues did not begin to receive recognition as social problems until the 1970s. Social legitimation of these problems was achieved when high schools, colleges, churches, employers, and the media recognized their existence. Organized social groups mobilized to develop and implement plans to deal with these problems. For example, groups successfully lobbied for the enactment of laws against sexual harassment and the enforcement of sanctions against violators of these laws. Groups mobilized to provide educational seminars on date rate for high school and college students and to offer support services to victims of date rape. Some disagree with the symbolic interactionist view that social problems exist only if they are recognized. According to this view, individuals who were victims of date rape in the 1960s may be considered victims of a problem, even though date rape was not recognized at that time as a social problem. Labeling theory, a major symbolic interactionist theory of social problems, suggests that a social condition or group is viewed as problematic if it is labeled as such. According to labeling theory, resolving social problems sometimes involves changing the meanings and definitions that are attributed to people and situations. For example, as long as teenagers define drinking alcohol as â€Å"cool† and â€Å"fun,† they will continue to abuse alcohol.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Maths Invented Or Discovered - 6199 Words

Maths: Invented or Discovered? Introduction: What is mathematics? What is the distinct definition for it? Something that always has bewildered me is what maths really is. Biology is the study of living organisms, chemistry is the study of chemicals, physics is the study of the universe and its forces, so what is maths the study off? Well the online Oxford Dictionary states that maths is â€Å"the abstract science of number, quantity, and space, either as abstract concepts (pure mathematics), or as applied to other disciplines such as physics and engineering ( applied mathematics)†. A more scientifical website states that maths is â€Å"the science that deals with the logic of shape, quantity and arrangement†. At school we have been taught that maths is â€Å"the study of numbers and arithmetic operations†, or that it is simply â€Å"a tool†. An online website (How Science Works) briefly talks about the concepts of maths, writing that maths is â€Å"a powerful secret language known to few, mastered by inhuman agents (such as your calculator)†, followed up by â€Å"even if we avoid such hyperbole, the fact remains: many of us are mathematically illiterate in a world that runs on math.† There is no concrete definition for what maths is, as it is open to interpretation. It can be seen from various different perspectives and perceived in certain ways. Some people say it is a tool used to solve problems, some say it is a the study of numbers and some may say that it is just a metaphor, a language thatShow MoreRelatedMaths : Invented Or Discovered?5065 Words   |  21 Pages Maths: Invented or Discovered? Abstract: Introduction: What is mathematics? What is the distinct definition for it? Something that always has bewildered me is what maths really is. Biology is the study of living organisms, chemistry is the study of chemicals, physics is the study of the universe and its forces, so what is maths the study off? Well the online Oxford Dictionary states that maths is â€Å"the abstract science of number, quantity, and space, either as abstract concepts (pure mathematics)Read MoreThe Perfect Number812 Words   |  3 Pageswhether a number is considered â€Å"perfect† or not. First, what you have to do to get a perfect number. Every scholar has invented their own formula to result in a perfect number. The most common formula is to take the factors of a number and add them together. If the sum of the factors, except the number itself, results in the original number then the number is perfect. Euclid invented a formula that is also used to solve for perfect numbers: 2p-1 (2p – 1) Ex.1: 21 (22 – 1)= 6 Ex.2: 22 (23 – 1)= 28Read MoreThe Role Of Mathematics And Grasp The Beauty Of It1007 Words   |  5 Pageswithout which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word. Galileo Galilei (1564 - 1642) Mathematics is ubiquitous. Discovered or invented, it has been around since the beginning of time. Mathematics can explain the indescribable wonder of our cosmos. It is through mathematics that we are able to explore our universe. This essay will demonstrate how maths is an integral part of our universe and will attempt to show that mathematics might be the key to discovering the great unknown. InRead MoreIn Expanding the Field of Knowledge We but Increase the Horizon of Ignorance (Henry Miller) Is This True?1651 Words   |  7 Pagesuses that the only way for a person to learn every branch and use of math would be to dedicate their life to math at a young age, and even then they would only know math. And who can really say they know everything about art? With the many different perceptions of art, and how art stirs different emotions in different people, art is somewhat of an individual knowledge. History will never be completely learnable. Even if we invented a time machine, we would only be able to completely know history ifRead MoreMathematical Connection Essay1173 Words   |  5 Pagescontributions that affected their society and modern society as well as specific examples of how the mathematical developments affected society. Math had and has a great impact in technology. During the 20th century mathematics made very quick advances on all fronts. Mathematics sped up the development of symbolic logic as the foundation of Math became solidly grounded. Aside from logic, physics and philosophy also benefited from the quantum theory and the relativity theory during this time.Read MoreThe Discovery Of The Logarithm836 Words   |  4 Pagespublished in 1614, while six years later, in 1620, Burgi’s logarithms were published (A REVIEW OF LOGARITHMS 2016). Both Napier and Burgi invented logarithms in order to simplify mathematical calculations. To reach their goals, they used two different methods; Napier used the algebraic method and Burgi used the geometric method. Although these two men had discovered logarithms, they did not have the concept of a logarithmic base. The current definition defines a logarithm as the power to which a numberRead MoreHistory of Computer1341 Words   |  6 Pageslotus blossom. The first numbering system similar to those in use today were invented between 100 and 200 A.D. by Hindus in India who created a nine-digit numbering system. Around 875 A.D., the concept of zero was developed. 5. The First Calculator: The Abacus. One of the very first information processor. The Abacus was man’s first recorded adding machine. It was in 500 B.C. when the Abacus was invented in Babylonia, then popularized in China, the Abacus is an ancient computing deviceRead MoreEssay about Mathematical Connection1238 Words   |  5 Pagescontributions that affected their society and modern society as well as specific examples of how the mathematical developments affected society. Math had and has a great impact in technology. During the 20th century mathematics made very quick advances on all fronts. Mathematics sped up the development of symbolic logic as the foundation of Math became solidly grounded. Aside from logic, physics and philosophy also benefited from the quantum theory and the relativity theory during this time.Read MoreThe History of Zero1561 Words   |  6 Pageszehirum, which comes from the Arbid sife translated from the Hindu sunya meaning empty. The first time zero was used in English language was in 1598. One of the many debates by mathematicians, even in our perspectives classroom is if zero was invented or discovered. â€Å"Zero’s path through time and thought has been as full of intrigue, disguise and mistaken identity as were the career of the traveller who first brought it to the west† (Kaplan, The Nothing That Is: A Natural History of Zero). Other debatesRead More1) What were the major achievements of the Mesopot amians or the Egyptians? How did these achievements of one of these societies influence late societies?1028 Words   |  5 PagesWith the invention of writing came the first recorded laws called Hammurabis Code as well as the first major piece of literature called the Epic Tale of Gilgamesh. The Wheel Although archeologists dont know for sure who invented the wheel, the oldest wheel discovered was found in Mesopotamia. It is likely the Sumer first used the wheel in making pottery in 3500BC and then used it for their chariots in around 3200 BC. Mathematics The Mesopotamians used a number system with the base 60